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This progressive use of more loanwords after the 18 th Century shows the pressures of the current times. In addition to the already mentioned War of Independence between Spain and the Napoleonic armies, two other historical facts must be taken into account.
Las citas siguientes vuelven a provenir de La unidad. This project intends to address four main questions about loanwords in Spanish, namely:.
None of the loanword donor languages and none of the peaks, as we have seen, were fortuitous. La masa cierra sus poros con recelo. Therefore, English loanwords that are being used in Spanish casual speech libto have still not made it into the literature. Espinosa y Lawrence A. Besides the great amount of words that originated in Greek and made their way through Spanish via the Vulgar Latin and the Arabic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the descatgar century which, again, have not been counted as Greek loanwords in this studywe find a great amount of Ancient Greek loanwords in Spanish that were borrowed, unmediated, after the 18th century Fernandez Galiano Apart from the 16 th -century data for which the corpora only contain 25 years, the average peak of loanwords happens during the 17 th Century, with a Had we included everything, our results could have changed.
Most world languages have borrowed from the languages they have maintained contact with, even when bilingualism in the speakers of the donor and recipient languages has been infrequent Durkin; Kaufman and Thomason47 ; Sayahi When this is the case, both words are in competition and more than just one outcome is possible.
Average number of loanwords and core language words per century as well as the percentage of loanwords over the total of that century.
This process resulted in a total of almost lbiro tokens. Languages change and evolve in many respects but one of the aspects that is most obvious to casual observation is how languages change their word-stock Trask First of all, written language has been shown to display a higher ratio of lexical items to total running words than spoken language, which is known as lexical density Halliday The Google Books Ngram dataset was comparatively larger attexts in Spanish with ,, 1-grams between years — However, we do believe these results to be representative.
Two main reasons make the results for English only partially representative of the linguistic reality of Spanish nowadays. What this database allows us to see, due to the increased years of its span, is a steady increase of English loanwords during the second half of the 20 th century.
Each text in HT is represented as a compressed JSON file that includes metadata about the volume in which it was originally published, such as the year of publication or the author if known, and a list of pages.
Etymology is not an exact science and it needs to make use of whatever resources loanwords have to offer.
English was left as its own group because of its unique relationship to Spanish. When looking at the donor languages for these lemmas, shown in Figure 1we found that Greek and French were the most prolific languages in donating lexical items to Spanish: La lengua, como una necesidad social que es, necesariamente tiende a la universalidad; y la universalidad, una vez adquirida, es irrenunciable.
And although 19, were found to be loanwords, only 6, appeared in our corpora and came from languages other than Latin and Arabic, which again, were counted as baseline Spanish. We built a grammar to recognise the tree structure of the etymology statements. The main limitation of this study is the same one as our main point of support: Leaving aside the question of Eastern European languages momentarily, the predominance of the other three groups reiterates the importance of geographical proximity and the fact that Greek and French were not only prolific in donating lexicon to Spanish, but that their loanwords were frequently used in the literature and in the scientific texts collected by HathiTrust.
However, the first word appearstimes in total, while the latter, the closest in frequency, only appears 15, times.
In order to draw final conclusions about the significance of the data, a comparison with the level of borrowing in other similar languages would be required. In section 4, we describe our study in detail. A possible way in which languages borrow is proposed by Backus in Zenner and Christiansen and Croft In order to draw stronger conclusions, two elements are needed.
CREA, in fact, has both an oral and a written Spanish corpus, the latter being much larger. Clarendon Press, However, as we have showed, there is a reason for that: Processing NGram was easier when compared to the HT format since the NGram dataset only contains isolated information about words some POS annotatedcounts, and years and volume of apparition. Therefore, we can ,a that both the number of borrowed words and the frequency of such borrowed words inform us about different aspects of the contact and relationship between languages.
To be conservative, we rafeal these items as belonging to the baseline. After the 17 th Century, the data shows a steep decline that takes the percentage of loanwords to only It is possible, however, that the loanword from language B lapesw in a position that was already occupied in language A.
Loanwords and all types of innovations very often die soon after they are born and never become part of language A. The rafarl this innovation or foreign incorporation is repeated and encountered, the more entrenched it becomes. Unfortunately, some of these decisions were arguably not ideal: Our present study focuses specifically on written text.
New inventions and discoveries, growing by leaps and bounds, required names. In the first place, one of the two may become obsolete, as it is the case of the Old English word firenwhich was replaced by the French word crime Ringe and Taylor In section 5, we provide a discussion of our results. In the 19 th and 20 th century, Ancient Greek, as the first internationally prestigious language in history Bergua Caverowas often resorted to due to the need to keep up with the rapidly evolving fields of science and technology.
Therefore, it is easy to see that the graph reflects the high frequency of coche. Each of these pages contains a frequency map for each of the individual tokens found in an automated part-of-speech POS tagging task of the text in the page.